Stainless Steel Plate
Most Widely Used Austenitic Stainless Steel, a Versatile Corrosion Resistant Alloy for General Purpose Applications.
Available thicknesses for Alloy 304/304L:
|5/8"||3/4"||7/8"||1"||1 1/8"||1 1/4"|
Alloy 304/304L (UNS S30400/S30403) is the most widely utilized “18-8” chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel. It is an economical and versatile corrosion resistant alloy suitable for a wide range of general purpose applications.
It is common practice for 304L to be dual certified as 304 and 304L. The low carbon chemistry of 304L combined with an addition of nitrogen enables 304L to meet the mechanical properties of 304.
Alloy 304/304L resists atmospheric corrosion, as well as, moderately oxidizing and reducing environments. The alloy has excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion in the as-welded condition. Alloy 304/304L has excellent strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures.
Alloy 304/304L is non-magnetic in the annealed condition, but can become slightly magnetic as a result of cold working or welding. It can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.
- Chemical and Petrochemical
- Processing—pressure vessels, tanks, heat exchangers, piping systems, flanges, fittings, valves and pumps
- Food and Beverage Processing
- Petroleum Refining
- Pharmaceutical Processing
- Power Generation—nuclear
- Pulp and Paper
Alloy 304/304L has good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, foods and beverages and to many organic and inorganic chemicals in moderately oxidizing to moderately reducing environments. The high chromium content of the alloy provides resistance to oxidizing solutions such as nitric acid up to 55% weight and up to 176°F (80°C).
Alloy 304/304L also resists moderately aggressive organic acids such as acetic. The nickel present in the alloy provides resistance to moderately reducing solutions such as pure phosphoric acid, whatever the concentration, in cold solutions and up to 10% diluted hot solutions. The alloy can also operate successfully in caustic solutions free of chlorides or Alloy 304/304L does not perform well in more highly reducing environments such as those containing chlorides and sulfuric acid.
Alloy 304/304L performs well in fresh water service with low levels of chlorides (less than 100ppm). At higher chloride levels the grade is susceptible to crevice corrosion and pitting. For successful performance under these more severe conditions, higher molybdenum content is need such as 316/316L. Alloy 304/304L is not recommended for service in marine environments.
In most instances, the corrosion resistance of Alloys 304, 304L and 304H will be roughly equal in most corrosive environments. However, in environments that are sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones Alloy 304L should be used because of its low carbon content.Lowest Temperature (°F) at Which the Corrosion Rate Exceeds 5mpy
|0.2% Hydrochloric Acid||>Boiling||>Boiling||>Boiling||>Boiling|
|1% Hydrochloric Acid||86p||86||185||>Boiling|
|10% Sulfuric Acid||—||122||140||167|
|60% Sulfuric Acid||—||<54||<59||<57|
|96% Sulfuric Acid||—||113||77||86|
|85% Phosphoric Acid||176||203||194||203|
|10% Nitric Acid||>Boiling||>Boiling||>Boiling||>Boiling|
|65% Niitric Acid||212||212||221||230|
|80% Acetic Acid||212p||>Boiling||>Boiling||>Boiling|
|50% Formic Acid||≤50||104||194||194|
|50% Sodium Hydroxide||185||194||194||230|
83% Phosphoric Acid +
|60% Nitric Acid +
2% Hydrocloric Acid
|50% Acetic Acid +
50% Acetic Anhydride
|1% Hydrochloric Acid +
0.3% Ferric Chloride
|10% Sulfuric Acid +
2000ppm Cl- + N2
|10% Sulfuric Acid +
2000ppm Cl- + SO2
|WPA1, High Cl- Content||<<50||≤50||113||203|
|WPA2, High F- Content||<<50||≤50||140||167|
ps = pitting can occur
ps = pitting/crevice corrosion can occur
Weight % (all values are maximum unless a range is otherwise indicated)
|Chromium||18.0 min.-20.0 max.||18.0 min.-20.0 max.|
|Nickel||8.0 min.-10.5 max.||8.0 min.-12.0 max.|
Specific Heat0.12 BTU/lb-°F (32 – 212°F)
500 J/kg-°K (0 – 100°C)
Modulus of Elasticity29.0 x 106 psi
Thermal Conductivity 212°F (100°C)9.4 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/°F
Melting Range25050 – 2590°F
1398 – 1421°C
Electrical Resistivity29.1 Microhm-in at 68°C
74 Microhm-cm at 20°C
|°F||°C||in/in °F||cm/cm °C|
|68-212||20-100||9.2 x 10-6||16.6 x 10-6|
|68-932||20-500||10.6 x 10-6||18.2 x 10-6|
|68-1600||20-870||11.0 x 10-6||19.8 x 10-6|
|Typical*||Type 304||Type 304L|
|0.2% Offset Yield Strength, ksi||42||30 min.||25 min.|
|Ultimate Tensile Strength, ksi||87||75 min.||70 min.|
|Elongation in 2 inches, %||58||40 min.||40 min.|
|Reduction in Area, %||70||—||—|
|Hardness, Rockwell B||82||92 max.||92 max.|
Alloy 304/304L can be easily welded and processed by standard shop fabrication practices.
Working temperatures of 1652–2102°F (750–1150°C) are recommended for most hot working processes. For maximum corrosion resistance, the material should be annealed at 1900°F (1038°C) minimum and water quenched or rapidly cooled by other means after hot working.
The alloy is quite ductile and forms easily. Cold working operations will increase the strength and hardness of the alloy and might leave it slightly magnetic.
Alloy 304/304L is subject to work hardening during deformation and is subject to chip breaking. The best machining results are achieved with slower speeds, heavier feeds, excellent lubrication, sharp tooling and powerful rigid equipment.
|Turning||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||6||.23||0.5||.019||13-18||42.6-59|
|Turning||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||3||.11||0.4||.016||20-25||65.6-82|
|Turning||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||1||.04||0.2||.008||26-31||85.3-101.7|
|Turning||Carbide||Dry or Cutting Oil||6||.23||0.5||.019||75-85||246-278.9|
|Turning||Carbide||Dry or Cutting Oil||3||.11||0.4||.016||90-100||295.3-328.1|
|Turning||Carbide||Dry or Cutting Oil||1||.04||0.2||.008||110-120||360.8-393.7|
|Depth of cut-mm||Depth of cut-in||Feed-mm/t||Feed-in/t||Speed-m/min||Speed-ft/min|
|Cutting||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||1.5||.06||0.03-0.05||.0012-.0020||18-23||59-75.5|
|Cutting||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||3||.11||0.04-0.06||.0016-.0024||19-24||62.3-78.7|
|Cutting||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||6||.23||0.05-0.07||.0020-.0027||20-25||65.6-82|
|Drill ø mm||Drill ø in||Feed-mm/t||Feed-in/t||Speed-m/min||Speed-ft/min|
|Drilling||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||1.5||.06||0.02-0.03||.0007-.0012||10-14||32.8-45.9|
|Drilling||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||3||.11||0.05-0.06||.0020-.0024||12-16||39.3-52.5|
|Drilling||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||6||.23||0.08-0.09||.0031-.0035||12-16||39.3-52.5|
|Drilling||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||12||.48||0.09-0.10||.0035-.0039||12-16||39.3-52.5|
|Milling Profiling||High Speed Steel||Cutting Oil||0.05-0.10||.002-.004||12-22||39.4-72.2|
Alloy 304/304L can be readily welded by most standard processes. A post weld heat treatment is not necessary.
NOTE: The information and data in this product data sheet are accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for informational purposes only, and may be revised at any time without notice. Applications suggested for the materials are described only to help readers make their own evaluations and decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other applications.