Duplex Stainless Plate

Sandmeyer Steel Company stocks a full line of Alloy 2304 stainless steel plate in thicknesses from 3/16" (4.8 mm) through 1-1/2" (38.1mm) and is a cost-effective solution for 316L stainless steel plate applications.

Available thicknesses for Alloy 2304:

3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 3/8" 1/2"
4.8mm 6.3mm 7.9mm 9.5mm 12.7mm
5/8" 3/4" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2"
15.9mm 19mm 25.4mm 31.8mm 38.1mm

Alloy 2304 (UNS S32304) is a 23% chromium, 4% nickel, molybdenum-free duplex stainless steel. The Alloy 2304 has corrosion resistance properties similar to 316L. Furthermore, its mechanical properties, i.e., yield strength, are twice those of 304L/316L austenitic grades. This allows the designer to save weight, particularly for properly designed pressure vessel applications.

Specification Sheet Overview

for Alloy 2304 (UNS S32304)
A Duplex Stainless Steel with PREN ≥ 24

General Properties

Alloy 2304 is a 23% chromium, 4% nickel, molybdenum-free duplex stainless steel. The Alloy 2304 has corrosion resistance properties similar to 316L. Furthermore, its mechanical properties, i.e., yield strength, are twice those of 304/316 austenitic grades. This allows the designer to save weight, particularly for properly designed pressure vessel applications.

The alloy is particularly suitable for applications covering the -50°C/+300°C (-58°F/572°F) temperature range. Lower temperatures may also be considered but need some restrictions, particularly for welded structures.

With its duplex microstructure and low nickel and high chromium contents, the alloy has improved stress corrosion resistance properties compared to 304 and 316 austenitic grades.


  • Generally where 304 and 316L are used
  • Pulp and paper industry (chip storage tanks, white and black liquor tanks, digestors)
  • Caustic solutions, organic acids (SCC resistance)
  • Food industry
  • Pressure vessels (weight savings)
  • Mining (abrasion/corrosion)


ASTM/ASME.......... A240 - UNS S32304
EURONORM...........1.4362 - X2 Cr Ni 23.4
AFNOR...................Z3 CN 23.04 Az
DIN.........................W. Nr 1.4362

Corrosion Resistance

General Corrosion
Because of its high chromium content (23%) the corrosion resistance properties of 2304 are almost equivalent to those of 316L.

Corrosion resistance in different organic acids

Corrosion resistance to stagnant sulfuric acid (0,3 mm/year)

Localized Corrosion Resistance
The 23% chromium and 0.1% nitrogen additions explain why 2304 duplex stainless steel behaves much better than Alloy 316L when considering pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.

Stress Corrosion Resistance
Stress corrosion resistance test results in chloride containing aqueous solutions ((8ppm 02) PH =7, >1000 h, applied stresses higher than the yield strength) show that Alloy 2304 outperforms Alloys 304L and 316L, due to its high chromium additions and low nickel contents.

This is a typical feature of duplex stainless steels. Alloy 2205 performs still better than 2304 in similar conditions.

Other Corrosion Resistance Properties
Alloy 2304 duplex stainless steel successfully passes most of the standard IC test procedures such as ASTM, A262E, and C tests. Its corrosion rate in boiling nitric acid (65%) is higher than that of Alloy 316L. Due to its high yield strength, the alloy performs well in abrasion/corrosion applications.

Chemical Analysis

Typical Values (Weight %)

Carbon Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Nitrogen Others
0.020 23 4 0.2 0.1 S=0.001
PREN = [Cr%] = 3.3 [Mo%] = 16 [N%] ≥ 24

Mechanical Properties

Tensile Properties (Minimum Values)

°C Rp 0.2
Rp 1.0
Rp 1.0
°F YS 0.2%
Offset KSI
YS 0.1%
Offset KSI
20 400 440 600 68 58 64 87 25
100 330 365 570 212 48 53 83 25
200 280 310 530 392 41 45 77 20
300 230 260 490 572 33 38 71 20

Values obtained for hot rolled plates (th ≤ 2"). Alloy 2304 must not be used for a long time at temperatures higher than 300°C (572°F), where precipitation hardening phenomenon occurs.

Toughness Values (KCV Minimum Values)

Temp. -50°C +20°C -60°F +70°F
Single 75 J/cm_ 90 J/cm_ 54 ft. lbs 65 ft. lbs
Average (5) 90 J/cm_ 150 J/cm 65 ft. lbs 87 ft. lbs

Hardness (Typical Values)

Average (5) HV10 180-230 HB : 180-230 HRC _ 20

Physical Properties

Density : 7,800 kg/m3 - 0.28 lb/in3



(μ_ cm)
20-100 13 20 80 17 450 200 75
20-100 13 100 92 18 500 190 73
20-200 13.5 200 100 19 530 180 70
20-300 14 300 105 20 560 170 67


The chemical analysis of 2304 is optimized to obtain a typical 50 a / 50 g microstructure after solution annealing treatment at 950°/1050°C (1742°/1922°F).

The microstructure of 2304 duplex is very stable compared to molybdenum-containing duplex stainless steels. Intermetallic phases are present only after 10 hours holding time in the 750°/850°C (1382°/1562°F) temperature range. Copper additions to 2304 grade, when specified, increase the hardness of the steel after heat treatment in the 350°/500°C (662°/932°F) temperature range.


Hot Forming

Hot forming must be performed in the 1150/900°C (2100/1650°F) temperature range. After forming, a new solution annealing treatment is recommended in the 950°/1050°C (2100°/1650°F) temperature range to fully restore corrosion resistance properties and mechanical properties. Parts formed with 2304 must be supported carefully during heating to avoid creep deformation.

Cold Forming

Alloy 2304 may be cold formed without any problem. The same equipment as used for the cold forming of 304L and 316L grades can be used. Due to its higher mechanical properties, including the yield strength, higher stresses are required for cold forming. A final solution annealing heat treatment is also recommended after cold forming in order to restore the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, as decribed in ‘hot forming.’


Use the same solutions and pastes as for Alloys 304L/316L. The pickling time will be higher than for austenitic grades due to the corrosion resistance properties of the alloy.


Alloy 2304 duplex exhibits improved machinability properties particularly when considering drilling. Its behavior is equivalent to that of 316LEZ*. Furthermore, 2304 has better corrosion resistance and cleanliness properties as no sulphur additions are necessary. Localized corrosion resistance behavior is improved.

*316LEZ is a 316L type grade with improved machinability properties.


  • Alloy 2304 can be successfully welded by the following processes:
    • TIG, manual and automatic
  • The duplex microstructure renders the alloy less sensitive to hot cracking.
  • The welding parameters must be optimized to obtain a controlled ferrite level (20-70%). Typical recommended heat inputs are 10-25 KJ/cm with a 150°C (302°F) max interpass temperature. These conditions must be optimized taking into account the thickness of the products and welding equipment (consult if necessary). We do not recommend pre- or post-welding heat treatments. Only complete solution annealing heat treatment may be considered.

NOTE: The information and data in this product data sheet are accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief, but are intended for informational purposes only, and may be revised at any time without notice. Applications suggested for the materials are described only to help readers make their own evaluations and decisions, and are neither guarantees nor to be construed as express or implied warranties of suitability for these or other applications.

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